Wet scrubbers are considered to be air treatment devices to take away gaseous particulate pollutants (NOx, SOx or other gases produced by combustion systems) that negatively affect the environment. According to air pollution control measures, it is required to take away these particulates in order to protect the receptors from the serious impacts of these gases on the health of humans and animals.
The majority of factories use wet scrubbers in a combination with other air pollution control techniques to reach the successful air treatment of the flue gases. Besides the disposal of harmful gaseous emissions in the waste gas, the application of wet air scrubbers also include the taking away of fine particulate pollutants of boiler ducts. The use of a special liquid (wet scrubber liquid) increases the efficiency of scrubber’s efficiency and enables to contact the waste gases.
A typical scrubber system has such a design that collected dirty particulate pollutants are directed into the wet scrubber’s liquid. Herewith, wet air scrubbers demonstrate higher efficiency in air treatment of both solid particulate matter and the gaseous pollutants. It is necessary to pay careful attention to the following parameters when choosing the type of scrubber system: “characteristics of the particulate pollutants regarded to be taken away, the size of PM, the concentration of the emission in the flue gas, characteristics of the scrubber liquid, desired removal efficiency, and required space for the wet scrubber”.
The operating principle of wet air scrubbers is based on flue gas cooling, chemical injection, and proper filtering at the outlet of the exhaust stack to carry over the chemicals into the atmosphere. It should be noted that there are seawater scrubbers, freshwater scrubbers as well as hybrid scrubbers. Additionally, it is possible to distinguish all wet scrubbers based on their physical orientation at horizontal and vertical scrubbers.
Apart from the air pollution control function of the wet scrubbers, they also provide a function of heat recovery and subsequent utilization in the process stream. The benefits of wet air scrubbers include:
- reduced space challenge;
- almost full removal of particulate pollutants;
- ability to take away numerous component emissions;
- scrubber flexibility to handle any gas temperature stream.
Moreover, all scrubber systems can be classified into spray towers, venturi, and packed bed scrubbers. Air pollution is regarded as a result of most industrialized cities with power plant facilities because they produce combustion product gases like SO2, NOx, and PM predominantly and CO. Despite the numerous air treatment devices that have been proposed, wet air scrubbers remain the most efficient.
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